Confronting The Storm Troopers Of Christ
Bruce Wilson printable version print page     Bookmark and Share
Sun Sep 02, 2012 at 04:36:09 PM EST
"During the years of the Third Reich, every German carried with them a document that had to be on their person at all times. It was not a driver's license, not a passport, not even proof of citizenship but a record of their racial heritage as attested to by their pastors and their baptismal certificates. Baptism had once stood as a sign of equality. In the Third Reich, baptism became a dividing line - between heroes and heretics, between compassion and catastrophe." - Narrative introduction to Storm Troopers of Christ: Baptism and the Jews in the Third Reich
[update: I originally posted this essay in early 2008. Recently, Steve D.Martin, author of the 59-minute documentary below, originally titled Storm Troopers of Christ: The Jews and Baptism in Nazi Germany, renamed and publicly released the documentary, which chronicles the long-overlooked complicity of Germans Protestant clergy and theologians in supporting Hitler's rise to power, in demonizing Jews, and even determining the official racial heritage of Germans, a life and death decision.]

Recent academic studies, by scholars such as Robert P. Erickson, Doris Bergen, Susannah Heschel and others have demonstrated that the role of the German Protestant churches, in aiding, sympathizing with, and failing to oppose, the rise of Hitler and the German Nazi Party, was dramatically greater than has been previously recognized.

The documentary "Storm Troopers Of Christ: The Jews and Baptism in Nazi Germany" explores how a major, influential faction of German Christianity, the Protestant Church in Germany especially, helped support the rise to power of Hitler and the Nazis, to relatively minor opposition from Christian clergy who disagreed with German fascism and the anti-Semitic policies of the Nazis.

During the Third Reich, German Jews to be sent to concentration camps and death camps were parsed from "Aryan" Germans not on the basis of their names, their physiological attributes, or other characteristics but mainly through their presumed racial heritage - as attested to, on their baptismal certificates, by their pastors. Simply by definition, people without baptismal records were in an "illegal" category. In effect, the requirement that all Germans carry with them, at all times, their baptismal records (if they had them) amounted to state-imposed Christianity.

As Steve D. Martin explores in "Storm Troopers Of Christ", the main struggle between the "Confessing Church" of Martin Niemoller and Dietrich Bonhoeffer, and the Nazi-sympathetic Deutsche Christen ('German Christians'), was over whether baptism could transform German Jews into, simply, Christians.

The Deutsche Christen never fully prevailed in their desire to strip from baptism its transformative power, and one of the most striking personal stories Steve D. Martin weaves into the tapestry of his documentary is that of a German-Jewish woman whose mother, ethnically German, had married a Jewish German man and, against advice assuring her that it was absurd unnecessary, convinced her pastor to baptise her baby daughter...

The baptism saved not only the baby girl's life but her father's life as well, and perhaps the life of the mother even; the daughter's racial classification was, because of the baptism, changed from "mixed race" to German and the parents lived safely, unmolested by the Nazi authorities, in Berlin through to the war's end.

But, because under the Third Reich the baptism of Jews had been made illegal, the pastor who performed the baptism was sent away to a concentration camp. He survived, however, and lived to perform a marriage ceremony for a young woman whom he had baptised and so saved through his heroic ceremonial act that carried such legal force and which, it seems, the Nazi authorities lacked the power to annul.

"...for many Christians inside Germany, Protestants and
Catholics,  there was a kind of difficult relationship with the idea of Democracy in Germany, and I think by 1930 German Democracy, the Weimer Republic was already on pretty shaky ground.... a lot of decisions were being made by the President, sort of bypassing the elected representatives, and I think for many church people this change, or this move away from a kind of a functioning democratic process, was quite welcome.
- Doris Bergen, author of Twisted Cross: The German Christian Movement In The Third Reich,as interviewed in Storm Troopers Of Christ

[ from the Vital Visual, Inc. description of "Storm troopers Of Christ"]

"In 1933 Berlin Bishop Joachim Hossenfelder proclaimed the popular, pro-Nazi "German Christian" movement the "Storm Troopers of Christ." Hossenfelder led the early phase of a movement that still echoes through the church today, even though the world has tried to forget.

This film uncovers a history few have remembered: a church of heroes and heretics, of selfless good alongside unspeakable evil:

  • Ludwig Mueller, the bishop of the Third Reich

  • Martin Niemoeller, the first to resist the Nazification of the church

  • Karl Themel, a pastor who used baptismal certificates to send "Jewish Christians" to the concentration camps

  • Werner Syltan, a pastor who died at Dachau because of his work on behalf of persons of Jewish descent

  • Walter Grundmann, a renowned Biblical scholar and architect of the "Institute for the Study and Eradication of Jewish Influence on German Church Life"

Recent academic studies, by scholars such as Robert P. Erickson, Doris Bergen, Susannah Heschel and others have demonstrated that the role of the German Protestant churches, in aiding, sympathizing with, and failing to oppose, the rise of Hitler and the German Nazi Party, was dramatically greater than has been previously recognized.

While the role of the Catholic Church, especially in terms of its Concordat with Hitler that gave key, early recognition to the Nazis and the National Socialist Party, has been long acknowledged, public and even academic awareness - of the role the German Protestant Churches played in failing to prevent, or even tacitly approving, the "Final Solution" has - has until recently been shockingly meager.

[from a 1993 review of Robert P. Erickson's Theologians Under Hitler: Gerhard Kittel, Paul Althaus and Emanuel Hirsch by Michael Hakeem, PhD.]

Professor Robert P. Erickson did an unusually comprehensive investigation of the three theologians' writings, utterances, and activities as they pertain to Nazism and the Jewish Question. He reports his findings in a book, Theologians Under Hitler. If anyone should know whether submission or opposition is demanded of the followers of the living Christ when confronted with a regime as totally reprehensible as that of the Nazis, surely it would be these theologians.

What conclusions did Erickson reach as to the stance of the three men who would be expected to exemplify the ultimate in the embodiment of those noble values that millions of Sunday school children are taught attach to Christian folk? They are grim:

"They each supported Hitler openly, enthusiastically, and with little restraint." In fact, they deemed it the Christian thing to do. They "saw themselves and were seen by others as genuine Christians acting upon genuine Christian impulses." Furthermore, all three tended "to see God's hand in the elevation of Hitler to power." Hirsch was a member of the Nazi party and of the SS. The Nazi state, he said, should be accepted and supported by Christians as a tool of God's grace. To Althaus, Hitler's coming to power was "a gift and miracle of God." He taught that "we Christians know ourselves bound by God's will to the promotion of National Socialism."

Kittel and a group of twelve leading theologians and pastors issued a proclamation that Nazism is "a call of God," and they thanked God for Adolf Hitler.

The Deutsche Christen, some of whom called themselves "Stormtroopers For Christ", formed the religious and theological "tip of the spear" of a German Christianity that for the most part aligned itself with, and even embraced, ideology and goals of the Nazis, and the much vaunted role of German theologians - such as Martin Niemoller and Dietrich Bonhoeffer - in opposing Hitler and German fascism have been substantially overstated. According to Doris L. Bergen, author of Twisted Cross: The German Christian Movement in the Third Reich, "People like Niemoller initially voiced their opposition very, very carefully and often in terms of, you know, 'we too are opposed to the undue Jewish influence inside our society' .

Who killed Anne Frank ?

That was not a casual question for Doris Bergen, author of "Twisted Cross"; it was an exercise Bergen designed for teachers in a course she was leading, for schoolteachers, that was called "Teaching The Diary Of Anne Frank", to raise their awareness of the "chain of complicity" that led to the Holocaust...

Bergen wrote out, on cards she passed out one by one to the teachers, "identities" of different people who each played a part in the death of Anne Frank - Hitler, Himmler, the person who snatched a scrap of bread from Anne Frank's hand in the concentration camp, the Dutch couple who turned Frank's family in to the Nazis, and so on. There were about 15 teachers, 15 cards. The assignment was that the teachers, based on their given "identity" written out on their card, should line up in order based on the relative responsibility each bore for Anne Frank's death, from greatest responsibility to least responsibility.

As Bergen describes the results, in Steve Martin's documentary "Theologians Under Hitler", "My expectation was that the person who held the card that said 'Adolf Hitler' would immediately march to the front of the line and stay there and the others would line themselves up behind that person. That's not what happened. Instead the teacher who had a card that said 'a German pastor who preached hatred of Jews, from the pulpit, in the 20s and 30s', that person marched immediately to the front of the line and refused to cede that position. No matter who came along, the person with the 'Hitler' card, the person with the 'SS' card... that woman said 'this person is the most responsible, this person who used the power of the pulpit, who used the authority of the Christian Church, of Christian tradition, to teach that it was not only acceptable but desirable to hate fellow human beings, to hate Jews, to fear Jews, to fight against them to attack them - this person is as responsible and more responsible than anyone else.' ".
Even Hitler...even Hitler. I have come to agree.

I have come to understand racism as primarily theological and I am writing this post to urge anyone - and especially readers here who belong to Christian churches, to synagogues, to mosques and temples - or any other communities of deep religious or philosophical belief - to consider holding screenings of "Storm Troopers of Christ" in such communities.

In many politically partisan commentaries, comparisons to Germany under Hitler's Third Reich, often poorly or inadequately supported, are used as a political weapon - to shut down discourse. From the left, many critics of the current Bush Administration have asserted parallels between pre-World War Two Germany and contemporary America. From the right, many critics warn that unless America widens it's military involvement in the Middle East, especially through an attack on Iran to forestall allegedly evil designs of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad - who such accounts routinely compare to Hitler, the United States risks enabling a second Holocaust.

In "Storm Troopers Of Christ: Baptism and The Jews In Nazi Germany" and in his earlier documentary film on the same topic such as "Theologians Under Hitler", documentary film maker Steve D. Martin" has studiously avoided loaded historical comparisons and so Americans almost anywhere on the political and religious map should be able to watch Martin's documentary films-- on the role of German Christianity in failing to oppose, sympathizing with and supporting the rise of Hitler and the Nazis --without feeling themselves somehow accused of the same sort of complicity, or even participation, that marked the German Christian churches during the period leading up to, and during, the Third Reich.

This is important not just for 'historical' reasons, I feel, and I say that as one who has personally heard a call, last October 2006 at the Family Research Council's Voter Values Conference, from former US Secretary of Education Dr. Bill Bennett, for the United States to level 'rebellious' Iraqi cities, such as Fallujah, with nuclear weapons. The animus I heard, from Bennett, was racist but not for the 'racial' or ethnic reasons as those are typically understood though such shadings were certainly present. Also present at the conference were several current 2008 GOP presidential candidates: most notably Mike Huckabee, Mitt Romney.

The eliminationalist hatred in Bennett's speech seemed to be at least in part theologically grounded, an imperative arising from what was widely cast during the conference as a religious war between Christianity and Islam. Such manichean eliminationalist views can currently be found on both the American political left and the American political right. One currently famous atheist, typically identified more with the American left than the right, has written that entire classes of humanity must be hunted down and killed not because of the nature of their souls but for their religious or philosophical beliefs.

Indeed, in a conversation with Steve D. Martin, he informed me that Richard Land of the Southern Baptist Convention was one of the first major theologians from either the left or the right who saw the significance of Martin's documentary Theologians Under Hitler, and Land was the first major religious figure to endorseme the documentary. [ Oddly, Richard Land was also a signatory to a 2002 letter to George W. Bush, signed by a number of religious leaders associated with the American religious right, affirming that in their view a US attack on Iraq would fall under the traditional Christian definition of a "just war".]

In Becoming Evil:How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing (Oxford University Press), Whitworth Professor of Psychology James Waller drew on extensive firsthand accounts from those who had both suffered and inflicted mass political violence to reach the simple conclusion : most humans can be conditioned to perpetrate acts of mass violence. In my Talk To Action story How Average Humans Can Be Conditioned To Carry Out Acts Of Mass Violence I reviewed several studies that have confirmed Waller's hypothesis. Below: Whitworth College summary of James Waller's 2002 "Becoming Evil" :

Written for both scholars and laypeople and drawing on eyewitness accounts from perpetrators, victims and bystanders, Waller's Becoming Evil refutes many of the standard explanations for antisocial behavior and presents four ingredients that lead ordinary people to commit acts of extraordinary evil. Waller contends that being aware of our own capacity for inhumane cruelty, and knowing how to cultivate the moral sensibilities that curb that capacity, are the best safeguards we can have against future genocide and mass killing.

"To offer a psychological explanation for the atrocities committed by perpetrators is not to forgive, justify or condone their behavior," Waller states in his preface. "Instead, the explanation simply allows us to understand the conditions under which many of us could be transformed into killing machines. When we understand the ordinariness of extraordinary evil, we will be less surprised by evil, less likely to be unwitting contributors to evil, and perhaps better equipped to forestall evil."

So, humans-- every one of us --are very complex, with motives both good and bad, mercenary and altruistic, and categorical demonization and vilification of others, whole societal groups, peoples or cultures only serves to inflame conflict, obscure our human potential to do good and elicit the innate potential for evil we all carry. I have come to feel that humanity must, above all, learn to transcend such forms of racism and categorical hatred if we are to survive in the coming decades.

"It's just upsetting to me, as a daughter of a Protestant theologian, who was taught that Nazism was - that Christians were anti-Nazi... to actually discover that when I read documents from the Third Reich... medical doctors, legal theorists, they kind of throw in anti-Semitism to please the regime, you can tell they're instrumentalizing it, they're doing their little - granting the regime it's wanting to hear the little anti-Jewish thing. You don't really believe them. They're not really anti-Semitic. It's not viscerally felt.

You read the Protestant clergy and the Catholic clergy... they hate the Jews. They really do... You feel the hatred coming off the page. They're deeply threatened. It's scary to them, and they blame Jews not just for sexual immorality but also for secularization, for doubt about the truth of the Gospel." - Dagmar Herzog, author Sex after Fascism: Memory and Morality in Twentieth-Century Germany, as quoted in Steve D. Martin's new documentary "Stormtroopers Of Christ".


What is racism ? I am not sure I have met any human, during my short life, who did not show elements of racist thinking but I am using a very broad definition of racism, one very new to me which I have come to by way of the documentary work of Steve D. Martin.

What is racism ? "Theologians Under Hitler" was Steve D. Martin's video documentary examination of three very prominent German theologians who condoned and aided the rise to power of Hitler and the Nazis. One of those three Christian Protestant theologians wrote a theological justification for legally excluding German Jews from a number of professions: Gerhard Kittel. Such a measure to benefit the "Aryan" German Volk might, Kittel noted, cause many German Jews great hardship and some might even starve - but Kittel deemed such a measure regrettably necessary.

In his earlier academic career Gerhard Kittel had a number of Jewish friends and might have even been described as philo-Semitic. He and his father did foundational Biblical research and, as part of that, became deeply knowledgeable about Jewish history and culture.

What happened to Kittel ?

We think of racism as having to do with skin color, facial structure, physical build...

Let me turn to a statement, from Suzanna Heschel, author of The Aryan Jesus, that Heschel made towards the conclusion of The Stormtroopers Of Christ: Baptism and The Jews During The Third Reich ;

"Racism in itself is a kind of theological or spiritual argument, and I'll give you an example of what I mean. A racist will say "The Jewish nose, look how horrible it is", and they have pictures of it and so forth - a big Jewish nose. Well, what is it about a nose ? A nose in itself isn't a dangerous thing. If someone has a big nose, a little nose, what difference does it make ? It doesn't harm me. Do you even notice, when you talk to somebody, the size and shape of the nose ? Of course not. Is this going to jump out, the nose, and shoot me ? Of course not.

So what is it about a nose ? Maybe the way racism works is this : the body is a manifestation of something deeper, of a spirit. What was of concern to racists was not the nose itself but the nose as bearing within it a degenerate moral spirit, a degenerate spirit that was dangerous for society, and it was a moral degeneracy that wasn't visible. You can't see it and touch it. But it was there nonetheless. And, you have to be careful because that's what can destroy you, moral degeneracy. And Germany, racists claimed, was being undermined by Jewish immorality, by Jewish degeneracy, exploitativeness and so forth.

And so, in that sense, my understanding of racial theory is that it's a kind of incarnational theology. It says that the moral degeneracy is incarnate in the body, in the nose or the lips or the hair, and what a racist tells you is ; you have to know how to read the body and interpret it properly so that you know the moral degeneracy that adheres in that body, that's incarnate in that body." - Susannah Heschel, author of the upcoming book The Aryan Jesus: Christianity, Nazis and the Bible




Display:
Bruce,

This is one of the best articles I've yet seen on the mainstream Christian churches and how they interacted with Nazi Germany. I've read Dr. Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke's books on the occult groups that influenced the Nazi movement. In his work, "The Occult Roots of Nazism", Clarke makes the point that almost all of the volkisch-occult groups (i.e. the Thule Society) were eventually discarded by most of the Nazi hierarchy. Himmler, it seems, was the only one that paid them even lip service. I wonder how long it would have taken the Nazis to marginalize and eventually eliminate both the Protestant and Catholic churches?

by Frank Frey on Tue Jan 29, 2008 at 11:09:08 AM EST

I'm very flattered. I felt the essay was choppy in places (it was a rush job) but I'm glad you liked it.

Who knows how long it would have taken the Nazis to marginalize (or redesign) Christianity ? Doris Bergen has a very telling characterization for the Deutsche Christen enthusiasm for Hitler :

Unrequited love

By the way, Morris Berman has an interested take on the occult/Christianity issue in his book "Coming To Our Senses...".

by Bruce Wilson on Tue Jan 29, 2008 at 12:53:17 PM EST
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I encountered the DVD "Theologians under Hitler" in the local public library, and it was excellent, as was the book by Erickson. I look forward to recommending these new resources  (second DVD, and books by Heschel and Bergen) to the various public and academic libraries.

I second the recommendation of the Waller book, as well.

by NancyP on Tue Jan 29, 2008 at 02:25:01 PM EST


Before Emperor Constantine brought Christianity into the mainstream, all the early Church Fathers taught -and all Christians followed- and never served in the army but instead willingly suffered rather than inflict harm on any other....... In the latter days of Nero's reign [54-68 A.S.] through the domination of Domitian [ 81-96] Christians were persecuted for following the nonviolent, loving and forgiving Jesus... That Jesus was first left behind when Augustine penned the Just War Theory........ St. Augustine was the first Church Father to consider the concept of a Just War and within 100 years after Constantine, the Empire required that all soldiers in the army must be baptized Christians and thus, the decline of Christianity began in earnest......... With the justification of war and violence supplied by Augustine's Just War Theory, wrong became right. Nothing much has changed in two millennia, for in today's Orwellian world politicians claim the way to peace is through war and that nuclear weapons provide protection.......American money claims 'In God we Trust' but the truth is America's faith is in an out of control Military Industrial Complex that seeks domination, power and control over any who would defy and challenge the American status quo. Eisenhower warned America not to bind our economy to the Industrial Military Complex and like most prophets, he was ignored.......... In 313 AD, Emperor Constantine legitimized Christianity and thus, those who had been considered rebels and outlaws began to enjoy political power and prestige........Jesus' other name is The Prince of Peace, and with the marriage of church and state, his true teachings were reinterpreted.......The justification of warfare and the use of state sponsored violence corrupted what Christ modeled and taught. .......Jesus was always on about WAKE UP! The Divine already indwells you and all others. Christ taught that to follow him requires that one must love ones enemies; one must forgive those who hate, curse and revile them, without even a thought of payback. ........Christ lived a life that proved evil can be opposed without being mirrored, and that the cycle of a "tooth for a tooth, an eye for an eye", will never bring peace and justice. e http://www.wearewideawake.org/

by eileen fleming on Sat Feb 16, 2008 at 03:02:19 PM EST

And exactly what more people need to read and understand so that we don't find ourselves doomed to repeat this history. I know Jewish friends of mine whose children have been the subject of anti-Semitic prejudice in school. Elementary school children telling these kids that they're going to hell, that they killed Jesus, and so on. I'm half-Jewish, half-Catholic by heritage. My mother's family is Catholic, my father's family was Jewish. Growing up, I was technically Catholic, but I learned about both, and my mother made sure that I knew that the Jews and Christians all prayed to the same God. She taught me that just like my biological family had different branches but was all part of the same family, God's family was had different branches, but were all part of the same family, too. It sounds simplistic, but it was a powerful lesson. I remember feeling deeply offended when I heard a priest mention briefly that the Jews needed to come into the light of God's full salvation through Jesus. I remember bristling at the comment, thinking that the Jews came first, and according to the Bible that I'd read, it was all part of the same religious heritage. And... oh yeah, Jesus was Jewish. And nowadays, I keep hearing the Fundamentalists and Dominionists and even the regular old Evangelicals and Born-Agains talking about the Jews like a lower class of monotheists. They use the Jewish state of Israel as a rally point, but only insofar as it serves their own purposes. All this stuff just reminds me why I'm so glad I became a Pagan.

by Mijan on Mon Mar 10, 2008 at 02:03:23 PM EST

Well, thanks for that article. It destroys the arguments from the christian right that nazism was somehow exclusively a pagan, or godless system of government -- that the churches all protested against it.
It gives me some pause. I have three children who are not baptized, because my church believes that to be a decision to be made by someone who wants to symbolize their consecration, and who is old enough to make that decision and understand the ramifications of it... and we live in Mississippi. We certainly will be screening 'Stormtroopers for Christ'.
We do have warriors for Christ in our own military, even  today. Thank you MRFF for all your work. And thank you T2A.

by COinMS on Mon Sep 03, 2012 at 09:49:23 AM EST
...but I'm not sure such specific battles will be replayed, along these exact lines in any case.

I wonder about the "elected seed" generation described in the Gruen report, because some of the core ideas at play in the NAR trace from the Kansas City Prophets. Other related, troublesome memes include the concept of "spiritual DNA". As in "Stormtroopers", this idea suggests that an alleged evil taint can be of spiritual, rather than physical, origin. This can function as a "spiritualized" form of racism.

by Bruce Wilson on Fri Sep 07, 2012 at 08:54:21 PM EST
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Dead

by Rey Mohammed on Sun Sep 02, 2012 at 06:10:15 PM EST

Lucy Dawidowicz claims that the defintion of  "Jew" in Germany was not  religious as much as it was racial.  In her book, The War Against the Jews 1933-1945, she makes note of what the defining issue was. She helped me understand the anti-Semitism in Germany. On pg. 316 many of the Jews executed were Catholic.
Pg. 91 lists the categories of a Jew.  It is defined by grandparents, parents etc.  Many of the Jews in Germany had no religious connection.  The defining issue was racial and not religious according to Dawidowicz.  The connection between the Lutheran church and Hitler is well documented.  The silence of the church in Germany is well noted. I am skeptical of this slant on history and find it in contrast to what I have read.

by wilkyjr on Tue Sep 04, 2012 at 11:51:40 AM EST
...that the Nazi movement never completed subjugated the Christian church, Catholic and Protestant both. The documentary illustrates the fact that racial identity (which could prove deadly) was determined by the church. Jewish religious affinity was irrelevant to that determination. Christian clergy were calling the shots, to a disturbing extent. Perhaps they felt they lacked choice in the matter but, as the documentary illustrates, they nonetheless wielded life-or-death power.

Another point, which is emphasized in the scholarship that has followed from Erickson's groundbreaking work, is that the "race" was both a pseudo-scientific but also a spiritualized concept.

Dawidowicz' book broke important ground, but Robert P. Erickson's work came over a decade after her book, and it expanded the territory.

by Bruce Wilson on Fri Sep 07, 2012 at 09:08:39 PM EST
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The idea of "spiritual DNA" is something I've heard in other venues, but on a positive note.  It would explain a lot of things that I've experienced, and I'm not alone in this.  I think this is an example of a good idea being used for bad purposes.

That being said, racism and bigotry have been fought for many generations.  "Papa Franz" Boas disproved many of the early accepted tenets of "scientific" racism back around the beginning of the 20th century, and the idea of a group of people being inherently flawed or "less" goes back well before Medieval days.  It's firmly tied in with "The Great Chain of Being" although the writings I've encountered suggested that the idea of one "race" ("white") being superior to others grew in response to the industrial revolution and slavery.

What is interesting is the connections between the US and Germany in terms of race ideology.  The Eugenics movement is one point - it was wildly popular in the US and still continued to be supported well after WWII and the Nazi horror - forced sterilizations based on eugenics theories were still done up into the 70s* (and maybe later?).  People think that discrimination is largely a thing of the past (with some exceptions), but race researchers will quickly say that it's only a little better today compared to the 50s and 60s (e.g. the Jena 6 situation), the difference is that it is more covert and subtle in most cases.  We're seeing the ugly head lifting out of hiding with regards to our President, and I expect it to get worse as the election grows closer.

The Nazis sent people to read with American Eugenics followers and to study, for instance, the reservation system for American Indians (a form of attempted ethnocide).  Their "Final Solution" was based partially on the things they learned, mixed with the longstanding bigotry against Jews that was (and still is) common.  I think the long history of bigotry against Jews (inspired by the Bible) caused them to be racialized long before any other group, but that's my opinion.

*-
Ralstin-Lewis, Marie
2005 "The Continuing Struggle against Genocide: Indigenous Women's Reproductive Rights", Wicazo Sa Review pgs 71-95

Lawrence, Jane
2000 "The Sterilization of Native American Women", American Indian Quarterly, Vol 24 No3 pgs 400-419

(There are other examples involving the poor, women of color, and women with disabilities.)


by ArchaeoBob on Sat Sep 08, 2012 at 12:35:28 PM EST
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You may remember that Rick Perry put together his "Response" prayer rallies with the help of a slew of NAR figures.  One of them was John Benefiel, an Oklahoma City-based "apostle."  He heads up......
Christian Dem in NC (2 comments)
Mississippi Religious Freedom Restoration Act.
Yes, that's right. We have totally lost our religious freedom in Mississippi and it must be restored by our legislators. ......
COinMS (1 comment)
Bill Gothard accused of harassing women and failing to report child abuse
Surprised no one's mentioned this, but one of the longest-standing leaders of the religious right is in a world of trouble.  Bill Gothard has been active in the fundie movement for over half......
Christian Dem in NC (1 comment)
Eugene Delgaudio may lose his day job as Virginia county supervisor
Surprised no one's noticed this, but one of the nation's most virulent homophobes is in a fight to keep his day job.  Eugene Delgaudio is best known as the head of Public Advocate......
Christian Dem in NC (0 comments)
Starkville Becomes First City in Mississippi to Pass Resolution Recognizing LGBT Residents
This caught me by surprise. I guess times are a changin in Dixieland. ------------------------------------- Cross posted from the HRC blog. Starkville Becomes First City in Mississippi to Pass Resolution Recognizing LGBT Residents January 21,......
COinMS (0 comments)
Robert Knight: Running against evolution could potentially be a winner for the GOP
In one of the starkest instances yet of how far gone the religious right is, one of its leading activists thinks that he's found another potential wedge issue that could drive more people into......
Christian Dem in NC (2 comments)
First Catholic official convicted in child sex abuse scandal has conviction overturned
Last year, Monsignor William Lynn, the Archdiocese of Philadelphia's secretary for clergy, was convicted of reassigning a priest whom he knew had molested a young boy to a parish that had a school attached......
Christian Dem in NC (0 comments)
Quotes From Sarah Palin 'War on Christmas" Book v. Quotes From 1920s Anti-Jewish Propaganda
The point of this comparison is not to cast Sarah Palin as a Nazi. Rather, my intent is to underline uncomfortable similarities between contemporary "war on Christmas" talking points propagated by elements of the......
Bruce Wilson (0 comments)
Francis sets up commission on how to deal with pedophile priests
Late yesterday Pope Francis announced--apparently after some prodding--that he will set up a panel to advise him on how to deal with child abuse by priests. The announcement was a forthright acknowledgment by the......
Christian Dem in NC (0 comments)
John Hagee: Jews will make deal with Antichrist before End Times
When John Hagee opens his mouth, you expect to hear lunacy.  An appearance earlier this month on TBN was no different.  On Friday, People for the American Way stumbled on a special prophecy-focused edition......
Christian Dem in NC (0 comments)
Doug Phillips Resigns From Vision Forum over "Inappropriate Relationship"
Doug Phillips resigned as president of Vision Forum earlier this week, citing an "inappropriate relationship."   Phillips posted an announcement on the Vision Forum website, stating, There has been serious sin in my life......
Rachel Tabachnick (2 comments)

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